Tuesday, September 13, 2022



With the introduction of new and more effective pharmaceuticals for a wide range of mental
diseases, the use of drugs to treat mental problems has increased substantially. Antipsychotics,
antianxiety medicines, and antidepressants are all psychotropics, and they may be subdivided
into three categories:
1. Antipsychotic agents:
Patients with mental illness were able to return to society thanks to antipsychotics like
chlorpromazine. Schizophrenia, a severe mental illness marked by delusions, hallucinations,
and occasionally aberrant behavior, is the major reason for the use of antipsychotics. In
paranoid schizophrenia, hallucinations are commonly accompanied by delusions that
revolve around a particular topic. A patient's metabolism of the medicine or the intensity
and character of the adverse effects may determine which drug is most beneficial.
2. Antianxiety agents:
Anxiolytics, often known as mild tranquillizers, help patients who are otherwise unable to
cope with the environmental or personal variables that cause their symptoms to worsen.
These medications include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine-
nonbarbiturates, and hypnotics, as well as other related classes. Since they've been around
for the longest, the barbiturates phenobarbital, amobarbital, pentobarbital, and
secobarbital are the most common. They're sedatives or used to treat seizures
Anti-anxiety medications such as benzodiazepines have taken over the market.
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) was the first to be discovered in 1959. Following the discovery of
chlordiazepoxide, a wide range of benzodiazepines were synthesized, each with a unique
set of characteristics. Some are primarily used to treat insomnia with hypnotics (sleep aids).
Prior to the introduction of benzodiazepines, there were only barbiturates and
meprobamate to treat anxiety. Barbiturates and meprobamate have been supplanted in the
treatment of anxiety by benzodiazepines, which have less negative side effects and a lower
potential for addiction. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal and relaxation of muscular spasms
as well as preparation for anesthesia are all possible benefits of these drugs. However, drug
dependence can be a concern, especially in those who have previously been dependent on
alcohol or other psychoactive substances. Examples of nonbenzodiazepine and
nonbarbiturate drugs include meprobamate. Benzodiazepines, on the other hand, are more
effective and safer.
Some additional anxiolytics include buspirone, which has a minimal potential for misuse and
is safer than other anxiolytics in the long-term treatment of chronic conditions such as

generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, they do not cause drowsiness, making them safe
for patients to use while driving or using machinery.
These include chloral hydrate, antidepressant sedation, and sedating antihistamines such as
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and hydroxyzine, which are all hypnotic drugs (Atarax). In
comparison to benzodiazepines, they have a greater morning hangover impact and other
side effects that make them less popular. Many anti-anxiety and hypnotic medications may
be used for both purposes, making the difference between the two difficult. Antianxiety
benzodiazepines, particularly in the elderly, can induce sleep in many people with low
dosages of hypnotic benzodiazepines.
3. Antidepressant drugs
Affective disorders include depression, which is a prevalent mental illness (also called mood
disorders). Depression can be adequately treated with a variety of medications. Based on
side effects or safety, one is chosen over another. Tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and other heterocyclic
antidepressants are the primary groups of antidepressants (e.g., trazodone, bupropion). For
example, the SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine have no sedative effect or
anticholinergic action, related weight gain or heart toxicity. However, they can provoke
uneasiness in certain people.
Tricyclic antidepressants, which include tertiary amines and secondary amines, are the
oldest and most researched class. In addition to their sedative properties, tricyclics can
cause cardiac problems and have a range of anticholinergic side effects that some people,
particularly the elderly, have trouble tolerating. To put it another way: The inhibition of
parasympathetic nervous system impulses results in anticholinergic side effects as dry
mouth and diarrhea. Drug interactions with MAOIs can be hazardous. For tyramine, which
may cause hypertension and severe headaches, this is especially true Tyramine can be
contained in a wide variety of foods, thus patients who take it must follow a strict diet.
Mood swings are a hallmark of bipolar illness, which can range from exuberant exhilaration
and gregariousness to deep sadness. To get the best results from lithium, the most
commonly prescribed mood stabilizer, it is necessary to have frequent blood concentrations
monitored. Anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine and lamotrigine, may be recommended
if the patient has mania or depression while taking lithium.
4. Psychotherapy
Psychological counselling can be used to modify unwanted or possibly hazardous behavior
in a behavioral treatment, or behavioral modification. Most treatment focuses on modifying
unhealthy behaviors including smoking cessation, weight loss, alcohol control, or better
stress management.
5. Behavioral therapy

Changes in behavior can be achieved by behavioral therapy, also known as behavioral
modification, which employs psychological counselling. Changing bad behaviors, such as
quitting smoking, dieting to decrease weight, abstaining from alcohol, or managing stress
more efficiently, is the primary focus of treatment.
6. Group therapy
In group therapy, a skilled therapist—a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or member
of the clergy—works with a group of patients or family. Each member of the group benefits
from the group's interactions. Behavioral modification can be used in groups to improve
eating habits, resulting in weight loss. A variety of support groups are provided to help
those coping with cancer, alcoholism, abuse, death, and other life-altering events.
7. Family and systemic therapy
Following World War II, general systems theories began to appear in the biological and
social sciences. As a result, people began to see themselves as interconnected parts of
broader social systems. The focus of systemic treatment in psychotherapy is not on the
genesis of issues, but on the dynamics of connections that impact problems. Instead of
focusing just on the behavior or internal dynamics of individuals, the therapist's purpose is
to transform the dynamics of the relationships. For example, if a child is exhibiting tantrum-
like behavior, the family's developmental stage, communication quality, and the clarity and
flexibility of family roles would be taken into consideration.
One or more family members, such as teenage disciplinary issues, marital strife, drug
misuse, or relational difficulties in families that come from remarriage might benefit from
family counselling.



The goal of preventive medicine is to decrease or eliminate a patient's exposure to risk factors
in an effort to keep disease away. Vaccination of children is an example of primary prevention,
which aims to prevent disease from occurring in the first place. It is possible to prevent or cure
diseases through secondary prevention, which involves spotting early signs of illness before
they manifest into symptoms. Pap smears and mammograms are two examples of routine
screenings. The goal of tertiary prevention is to slow or halt the spread of an existing disease.
To put it plainly, primary prevention is a more cost-effective approach to illness management.
There are a number of leading causes of death around the world that include:
 cardiovascular disease,
 cancers,
 cerebrovascular illness,
 accidents, and
 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
 Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death because of the increased risk
of cardiovascular illness (e.g., heart attack), cancer, stroke, and chronic lung diseases
like emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Disease prevention suggestions and guidelines have been issued by a variety of organizations
around the world. According to a Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination, the US
Preventive Services Task Force was established to evaluate the efficiency of various screening
tests, vaccinations and preventive regiments based on a careful review of the scientific
literature in the US. Clinical Preventive Services Guide presents the panel's recommendations
for a wide range of disorders.
Preventing infectious diseases is best done through vaccinations. Diphtheria, tetanus, and
pertussis, also known as whooping cough (DTP), polio (OPV), measles, mumps, and rubella
(MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbCV), and hepatitis B, are all common childhood
vaccines that are routinely administered to children and babies (HBV). Infants and children
under the age of 2 should be vaccinated against influenza every year; adults over 65, those with
chronic cardiopulmonary disease, and those in long-term care facilities should also receive the
vaccine each year. Pneumococcal pneumonia can be prevented using a vaccine that contains 23
of the most frequent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A major infectious illness problem is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by
the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstacles in the way of a vaccine's development
remain high. Preventive strategies include abstaining from sexual contact, using condoms, and
avoiding sharing needles among intravenous drug users.
A heart attack can be prevented by reducing or eliminating risk factors such as a sedentary or
inactive lifestyle, being overweight or obese, smoking, high blood pressure, raised serum

cholesterol, and binge drinking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include a higher LDL (low
density lipoprotein) level, as well as a decrease in HDL (high density lipoprotein). Changing
one's diet to one that is lower in total cholesterol and higher in LDL can lower these levels,
while quitting smoking and getting more exercise can improve HDL levels. If none of those
options work, there are a number of cholesterol-lowering medications to choose from.
Hypertension, cigarette smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are all substantial risk factors for
stroke. Up to 20 percent of stroke victims experience a TIA, which includes symptoms such as
momentary visual loss in one eye, unilateral numbness, slurred speech, and localized weakness
in one arm or leg. TIAs usually occur before a stroke. Until a stroke occurs, attacks continue no
more than 24 hours and dissipate without causing permanent damage.
Avoiding cigarette smoke is the most effective way to reduce one's chance of developing
cancer. Nonsmokers are increasingly becoming aware of the dangers of exposure to continue
smoking, which causes 30 percent of all cancer deaths. Sunscreens and protective clothing can
be used as primary skin cancer prevention measures. As a secondary preventive measure for
cancers other than cancer of the uterus, uterus, and ovaries, secondary measures include
mammography (clinical breast examinations), breast self-examinations (BSEs), and Pap tests
(cervical cancer/ovarian cancer) and sigmoidoscopy (digital rectal examinations) for colorectal
Osteoporosis is more common in men and women over the age of 70, and it can lead to
fractures, low back discomfort, and a shortening of stature. A common symptom of oestrogen
insufficiency in postmenopausal women is osteoporosis. Estrogen replacement medication and
increased calcium intake are the most effective ways to maintain bone mass after menopause.
Tobacco and excessive alcohol use should be avoided, and physical activity should be increased
as a primary preventive measure.
A major cause of accidental fatality in the United States is alcohol misuse. Other factors include
not wearing seatbelts or motorcycle helmets, lack of sleep, and having guns in the house. Take
appropriate precautions and learn about the dangers of alcohol and guns to help limit the
number of accidental deaths caused by these two substances.



A therapeutic field in which music is employed for nonmusical purposes. Musical activities such
as songwriting and improvisation are used by therapists to achieve goals in mobility, cognition,
language and emotional health.
Music therapy is an allied health profession that provides health treatments that aren't often
supplied by doctors or nurses or other medical professionals. Music is a strong and familiar
medium that may be used across the lifetime, from neonatal intensive care units through
elderly homes and hospices. Music therapy can also be used in psychiatric hospitals, prisons,
and drug treatment facilities.
Historical evolution
The oldest musical instrument ever discovered is a bone flute that dates back 42,000 years. For
these and other reasons, music therapy is assumed to have been around for a long time. Music
therapy has been explored and recorded mostly from a Western perspective, though. As a
result, there is a strong Western bias in the therapeutic use of music. Music as Medicine: The
History of Music Therapy was edited by British academic Peregrine Horden. There has been a
distinction made between "first world" music therapy (found in nations such as the United
States and the United Kingdom) and "traditional" or "indigenous" music therapy (found in
countries such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America). There are many instances of indigenous
healing rituals that incorporate music and dance. Music and dancing are often referred to as
the same thing in various African languages.
Understanding the dominant idea of healing and sickness is often crucial to understanding the
use of music as treatment. After a shift in thinking from a belief in divine retribution (disease as
punishment from the gods) to a focus on the physical causes of illness (such as an imbalance of
four bodily fluids), ancient Greek physicians began to believe that music could help restore both
body and soul to a state of harmony. One of the most widely cited philosophers in favor of
music is Plato, who has written extensively on the subject of music.
Music was studied for its physiological effects in the 1800s as the scientific approach became
more refined. In 1789, a paper titled "Music Physically Considered" was the first to be published
on the subject of music therapy (author unknown). Edwin Augustus Atlee and Samuel Mathews
both produced dissertations on the topic in 1804 and 1806, respectively. Atlee and Mathews
trained under Benjamin Rush, an American physician who advocated for the use of music in the
treatment of patients. Blackwell's Island Asylum in New York was the first facility to conduct
music therapy studies on patients in the 19th century.
Post-WWII, the discipline of music therapy saw a spike in activity. To help troops suffering from
post-traumatic stress disorder, American veteran's hospitals recruited musicians (PTSD). As a
result, a college-level curriculum was developed for a professional music therapy practice.

The National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) was established in 1950, after many
unsuccessful efforts to form a professional organization in the United States. There was a
second organization founded in 1971, the American Association for Music Therapy, with a
distinct approach to practice. The American Music Therapy Association was formed in 1998
with the merger of the two organizations.
In addition, the World Federation of Music Therapy and the European Music Therapy
Confederation were also established in 1985 and 1990, respectively, as organizations dedicated
to music therapy. It was their job to put on conferences and oversee educational activities, as
well as research projects and advocacy efforts. Undergraduate and graduate programme in
music therapy may be found all around the globe. Typically, the clinical phase required more
than 1,000 hours of training.
Clinical Practice
When it comes to music therapy, a wide range of instruments and musical styles are used.
Listening and singing familiar music might be used as an example of intervention. Music is
selected based on the patient's interests and demands. Rhythmically driven music, for example,
may be utilized to enhance gross or fine motor movement if a music therapist is dealing with a
patient who has a movement issue. Sedative music may be used by a music therapist to help a
patient prepare for surgery, childbirth, chemotherapy, or the end-of-life care. Reducing one's
response to everyday stresses may also be achieved via the use of these strategies.
For young children who have not yet learned to speak, music therapy may be a useful
treatment option for autism. To the autistic child, music is a world apart from spoken language
or ambient noises. When children are captivated by music, it may be utilized to help them
develop communication and social skills. Music therapists may help patients with dementia by
bridging the gap between their deteriorating mental abilities and their love of music. A person's
favorite music from their formative years is stored in their brain for as long as they want, even
if the condition has progressed significantly. When a person is feeling worried or agitated or has
to do everyday tasks like washing or dressing, music therapy may help them recall happy
experiences and bring comfort, inspiration, and relaxation.
Music therapists, like other therapists, operate within the framework of a therapeutic
interaction. ' In order to provide the best possible care to patients of any age or ability level,
music therapists are educated in psychology, biology, and neuroscience.
In music therapy, there are several approaches:
Music therapy may be practiced in a variety of ways. Nordoff-Robbins music therapy, for
example, is an improvisational method to treatment that also incorporates the writing of music.
When Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins were working with children with developmental
problems, they came up with the idea of using music to help them (e.g., intellectual, sensory, or

motor disability). Patients of all ages may benefit from this treatment method, which is widely
used across the globe.
An autistic youngster, for example, may spontaneously vocalize, and these vocalizations might
serve as the foundation for improvised music. When a youngster has the sensation of "being
heard," it captivates them. It is possible for a music therapist to adjust and develop the music
improvisation after attention has been gained in order to encourage the kid to express
themselves vocally or musically in certain ways. An infant's nonverbal communication with his
or her careers is mirrored in the musical background. Taking turns, repeating the other's
output, and building on those products are all essential to the development of speech,
language, and cognition throughout this stage of development.
Neurologic music therapy is a specialization that music therapists might choose to pursue
(NMT). As a neurorehabilitation specialist, you'll learn how to apply scientifically proven
methods to your practice (the recovery of neurologic function). There are a number of
strategies that may be utilized in this approach to help improve cognitive, sensorimotor, and
speech abilities, including auditory perception training and patterned sensory augmentation. A
variety of health care professionals, including physical, occupational, and speech therapists as
well as doctors and nurses, may get training in neurology music therapy at institutions all
around the globe.
Originally developed by Helen Lindquist Bonny, a music therapist in the United States, guided
imagery and music (GIM) is a music-based psychotherapy approach that tries to integrate the
many components of well-being. Patients are guided into an even deeper level of relaxation by
the therapist in sessions. During this time, the patient is encouraged to share his or her
innermost thoughts, emotions, and recollections while listening to specially chosen music.
The use of music therapy in the neonatal critical care unit is also possible (NICU). Premature
newborns benefit greatly from NICU music therapy, a highly specialized field of practice.
Premature newborns may benefit from the systematic use of music therapy in the NICU, such
as improved eating, according to studies. Hospitalization stays may be minimized and costs
slashed by this method.



A general anesthetic is not necessary for many surgical procedures because to the use of local
anesthetics, which provide numbness and reduce pain. The patient won't have to spend the
night in the hospital unless something goes wrong. Anesthetizing particular peripheral nerves or
larger nerve trunks can also be accomplished with local anesthetics. There are a variety of uses
for nerve blocks that include pain management, but they are most commonly used to
anaesthetize the hands or feet during surgeries on the upper extremities. A local injection of
anesthetic into the subarachnoid or epidural region of the lumbar (lower back) section of the
spinal canal provides pain relief during childbirth or pelvic surgery while avoiding the
complications associated with a general anesthetic injection. On the skin, in the eyes' cornea
and conjunctiva, in the mucous membranes of your nose or mouth or throat or urethra are all
places where topical anesthesia can be applied.
A significant portion of local medication therapy is devoted to the treatment of dermatologic
problems, whether that means prescribing a medicine to promote hair growth or alleviate an
itchy, burning rash. Eczema, poison ivy allergies, and seborrheic dermatitis can all be treated
with a variety of corticosteroid formulations. UV rays can cause skin cancer, so it's important to
wear a sunblock to keep your skin safe from them. Cleansers, keratolytic agents to encourage
peeling, and topical antibiotics are all used to treat and prevent acne. Many different types of
wet dressings, gels, creams, and ointments are used by doctors to treat intensely inflammatory,
crusting wounds and to protect and hydrate dry, cracked skin. Topical medicines like silver
sulfadiazine help burns heal more quickly and with less scarring when used correctly. Nystatin
or an imidazole medication is effective in treating Candida infections of the mouth mucous
lining (i.e., thrush) or the vagina. Podophyllin, a crude resin, has been the conventional therapy
for genital warts. Interferon-, however, was developed in the late 20th century and is effective
in the majority of patients when injected directly into the lesion or subcutaneously below the
Mydriatics (drugs that dilate the pupil) like atropine are commonly used in ophthalmology to
aid in refraction and internal inspection of the eye, as well as to treat glaucoma and other eye


Chemical agents are used to treat sickness in order to kill off the underlying organism without
causing harm to the patient. Antibiotics used to treat bacteria, viruses, fungus, or parasites are
included in this definition. There are a number of uses for the term "chemotherapy," but the
most prevalent is to describe the treatment of cancer with chemicals. Because most
medications have a small therapeutic zone beyond which they destroy normal cells as well as
cancer cells, the goal of the therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving healthy cells intact.
When it comes to cancer treatment, anticancer medications are only moderately selective for
cancer cells, making it difficult for doctors to choose a drug that would destroy the most cancer

cells, while causing the fewest unpleasant and undesirable side effects. The goal of therapy is to
achieve a risk-benefit ratio that favors the treatment's morbidity above its possible advantages.
Many patients would refuse additional therapy if a treatment causes them to be unpleasant
and has only a little possibility of extending their lives. Patients may choose to continue with
severe treatment if they believe it will help them live longer.
Chemotherapy's effectiveness is dependent on the drug's concentration being at the tumor site
for an extended period of time to kill the tumor cells. In the early stages of the disease, when
the tumor is tiny and isolated, there is the best chance for a cure. Getting rid of a huge and
dispersed tumor becomes more difficult the larger and more widespread it is. Oral,
intravenous, intra-abdominal, intrathecal (into the spinal cords subarachnoid region), or intra-
arterial (into the tumor's artery) administration can all be options depending on the tumor's
The greatest limiting aspect in chemotherapy is the suppression of bone marrow function,
which reduces blood cell formation. A longer interval between chemotherapy treatments is
sometimes necessary to prevent full bone marrow suppression since chemotherapy works best
when administered at the highest safe dose. Platelet transfusions and white blood cell
transfusions are common supportive therapies used when bone marrow suppression occurs (to
prevent bleeding caused by decreased platelet production) (to control infection).
Chemotherapy used in conjunction with surgery or radiation to treat cancer is called adjuvant
chemotherapy. As a result of the frequent occurrence of distant micrometastases, this is an
absolute necessity. Cancer recurrence rates are reduced by adjuvant chemotherapy in various
tumors, particularly ovarian cancer, osteogenic sarcoma and colorectal cancer. Tamoxifen, an
antiestrogen medication, has shown promise in the treatment of some women with early-stage
breast cancer.

Pharmacy: What is it?

Pharmacy: What is it?
The word "PHARMAKON," which refers to a medication or medicine, is the foundation of
the pharmacy profession.
Typically, it is a place where pharmaceuticals or medicines are sold.
Art and science of pharmacy are used to create pharmaceuticals that are used to treat
and prevent disease by using a variety of natural and synthetic substances.
In academic and professional settings, pharmacy is defined as the branch of science
concerned with the preparation, dosing, administration, and effects (including safety) of
pharmaceuticals (or medicinal drugs or simply drugs). Pharmacy is the synthesis of
chemistry and the health sciences in the broadest sense.
The origin of the pharmacy profession:
Pharmacology was evolving in the mediaeval Persian and European empires.
Historians claim that the Arabic civilizations were among the first to create a list of
medications and dosage forms (pills, syrups, extracts), as well as to establish the
pharmacist as a licenced healthcare practitioner.
There are influences from the Greek and Arabic cultures in this pharmacy (apothecary).
Professional guilds aided in the education of chemists and pharmacists, leading to the
establishment of formal institutions and organisations.
What is a pharmacist's job?
Often referred to as a DRUGGIST or CHEMIST.
An expert in the safe and efficient use of medicines, a pharmacist is a medical
What are the requirements for a pharmacist to get a job?
Acknowledgement of:
manufacture of drugs
checks for quality control,
discovering the products of deterioration
Proper storage of medications
preparation of the dosage form,
route of administration,
Drug-drug interactions and the effects of medications on diet.
Functions performed by a pharmacist:
Compounding and dispensing the patients' drugs was standard routine.
A pharmacist in the developed world:

a "happy to help person" with proper training.
Filling prescriptions.
provides patients with specialized guidance on the use of drugs.
In Pakistan, you can take courses such as:
Diploma in Pharmacy
Bachelor of Pharmacy
Master of Pharmacy
Master of Science in Pharmacy
Master of Technology in Pharmacy
Doctor of Pharmacy
Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacy
Combining two degrees, such as a B.Pharm and an MBA or an M.Pharm and an MBA.
For the Public Sector
Pharmaceutical industries
Drugs Inspector
Analyst for the Federal Government
Hospital Pharmacist
Military forces
In the private sector, however,
Pharmaceutical companies, both global and regional
Production units
R&D Units
Quality Assurance
Laboratories (QC)
Clinical Trials
Pharmaceutical Marketing

DEO such as medical writing, coding, etc.
Clinician and hospital pharmacist

Pharmacy majors and minors:
The course will cover a wide range of topics, both major and minor.
Here are the main subjects (or modules) that we cover:
Human Physiology and Anatomy (Human Biology including Patho-physiology)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Medicinal Chemistry)
Pharmaceutics (deals with formulation, drug delivery, drug stability, dosage forms, patient
acceptance etc.)
Pharmacology (study of effects of drugs on human body and biological systems – mixture
of biology, physiology and chemistry; will cover both basic, advanced and clinical
Pharmacognosy (study of medicinal drugs derived from plants; deals with botany, plant
science and phyto-chemistry)
Biochemistry (study of biological reactions within living organisms)
Microbiology (study of micro-organisms like bacteria, virus, protozoa etc.)
Pharmaceutical Technology and Engineering (deals with basic concepts of Chemical
Engineering – e.g. Fluid Dynamics, Process Chemistry and Industrial Processes)
Minor modules or subjects
The following are some of the minor modules or subjects that will be covered:
Hospital Pharmacy
Clinical Pharmacy
Marketing and business administration
Electronics and computer science (or Applications)
technological drawing
advanced mathematics
Pharmaceutical biotechnology
Computational Chemistry

Note: This is not a complete list of minor and elective courses.)
Pharmacy departments
Pharmaceutical chemistry
Pharmaceutical Analysis
Pharmacy Practice


SYSTEMIC DRUG THERAPY There are many different types of systemic medication therapy: those that treat the entire body as a whole, or those t...