Tuesday, September 13, 2022



1. Laser surgery
At short distances, a laser beam can generate significant heat by emitting a very intense
monochromatic, nondivergent beam of light. Laser photocoagulation (also known as laser
welding) is used to stop bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract after a peptic ulcer. It is also used
to repair a surgically detached retina. Lasers can be used to cure pigmented tumors, erase
tattoos, or coagulate a hemangioma since they are absorbed by pigmented lesions (a benign but
disfiguring tumor of blood vessels). To treat superficial bladder cancer, laser surgery can also be
paired with transurethral ultrasound-guided laser-induced prostatectomy (TULIP). The
treatment of glaucoma and cervix and vulva diseases, including cancer in situ and genital warts,
are more recent applications.
2. Cryosurgery
Cryosurgery is a technique in which tissue is vaporized under extremely low temperatures.
Liquid nitrogen can be used to treat warts, precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses), and tiny
cancerous lesions on the skin. Extraction of central nervous system abnormalities (including
difficult to reach brain tumors) and treatment of some heart conduction problems are other
possible uses.
3. Stereotactic surgery
For deep lesions in the brain that cannot be reached otherwise, stereotactic surgery is a
valuable neurosurgical technique that allows the use of cold (as in cryosurgery), heat, or
chemicals to find and treat them. One of the advantages of this technique is that it keeps the
head immobile in a "halo frame," which aids in the precise location of the lesion or area that
needs treatment.
High-intensity radiation is also focused using stereotactic techniques on specific parts of the
brain in order to treat tumors or eliminate arteriovenous malformations. With the patient under
local anesthetic, a single burr hole in the skull is all that is needed to guide fine-needle aspiration
biopsies of brain lesions with this approach. Additionally, stereotactic fine-needle biopsy can be
utilized to examine breast lesions that are not palpable but are found by mammography.
4. Minimally invasive surgery
New technology that uses a small incision to insert a rigid or flexible endoscope to enable
internal video imaging is replacing traditional open surgical techniques. Treatments such as
endoscopic procedures (endoscopy) are frequently used to treat the nasal sinus, intervertebral
discs, fallopian tubes (including the uterus), shoulders, and knee joints. Even while endosurgery
has several advantages over conventional surgery, it can be more expensive and have a greater
rate of complications.
5. Trauma surgery
One of the most common reasons of lost life expectancy is trauma. Surgeons are now able to
save more lives than ever before thanks to the rapid advancement of medical technology and

instrumentation. Adult respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, kidney failure, sepsis,
and other life-threatening conditions can now be treated in the intensive care unit thanks to a
variety of life-supporting monitoring and technology.

Radiation therapy and other nonsurgical treatment options

1. Radiation therapy
electromagnetic waves (e.g., X-rays) or particles, such as electrons, neutrons, or protons, are
examples of ionizing radiation. Free radicals and oxidants are formed when cells come into
contact with tissue, resulting in cell death. Radiation may typically retain organ structure and
function while causing less harm than surgery when done correctly. Depending on the tumor's
radiosensitivity and the surrounding healthy tissues, a specific kind of radiation is applied. By
depositing their energy at a higher depth with high-energy sources such as linear accelerators,
these treatments not only cure deep-seated tumors but save the skin as well. Alternatively,
numerous beams of radiation can be directed at the deep tumor, providing a lesser dosage to
the rest of the body. Some skin malignancies can be treated with low-intensity electron beam
2. Hyperthermia
More sensitive than healthy tissue to temperatures about 43 degrees Celsius (109.4 degrees
Fahrenheit). Tumor centers, where blood supply is low and radiation is ineffective, are more
sensitive to heat than the rest of the tumor. Microwaves or ultrasound can be used to heat a
tumor. Hyperthermia, a kind of nonionizing radiation treatment, may improve the effects of
radiation and chemotherapy.
3. Photodynamic therapy
Photodynamic treatment is another non-ionizing radiation therapeutic method (PDT). To use
this method, a light-absorbing chemical is injected into the body, and only the cancer cells retain
it. Laser beams of the proper wavelengths are used to destroy the cells. Tumors of the bronchi,
bladder, skin, and peritoneal cavity can be treated using PDT.
4. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
"Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy" refers to the use of shock waves to disintegrate stones
in the urinary system, most commonly the kidney or upper ureter (ESWL). The urethra and
bladder are the final destinations for the resulting stone pieces or dust particles.
The patient is given a general, regional, or even local anesthesia before the shock wave is
administered to the flank above the kidney. Stones of this size don't need to be submerged in
water; shock waves are instead conveyed through the skin by use of a water-filled rubber bulb.
Endoscopes are used to remove stones that are too big to be handled this way.

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