Tuesday, September 13, 2022



With the introduction of new and more effective pharmaceuticals for a wide range of mental
diseases, the use of drugs to treat mental problems has increased substantially. Antipsychotics,
antianxiety medicines, and antidepressants are all psychotropics, and they may be subdivided
into three categories:
1. Antipsychotic agents:
Patients with mental illness were able to return to society thanks to antipsychotics like
chlorpromazine. Schizophrenia, a severe mental illness marked by delusions, hallucinations,
and occasionally aberrant behavior, is the major reason for the use of antipsychotics. In
paranoid schizophrenia, hallucinations are commonly accompanied by delusions that
revolve around a particular topic. A patient's metabolism of the medicine or the intensity
and character of the adverse effects may determine which drug is most beneficial.
2. Antianxiety agents:
Anxiolytics, often known as mild tranquillizers, help patients who are otherwise unable to
cope with the environmental or personal variables that cause their symptoms to worsen.
These medications include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine-
nonbarbiturates, and hypnotics, as well as other related classes. Since they've been around
for the longest, the barbiturates phenobarbital, amobarbital, pentobarbital, and
secobarbital are the most common. They're sedatives or used to treat seizures
Anti-anxiety medications such as benzodiazepines have taken over the market.
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) was the first to be discovered in 1959. Following the discovery of
chlordiazepoxide, a wide range of benzodiazepines were synthesized, each with a unique
set of characteristics. Some are primarily used to treat insomnia with hypnotics (sleep aids).
Prior to the introduction of benzodiazepines, there were only barbiturates and
meprobamate to treat anxiety. Barbiturates and meprobamate have been supplanted in the
treatment of anxiety by benzodiazepines, which have less negative side effects and a lower
potential for addiction. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal and relaxation of muscular spasms
as well as preparation for anesthesia are all possible benefits of these drugs. However, drug
dependence can be a concern, especially in those who have previously been dependent on
alcohol or other psychoactive substances. Examples of nonbenzodiazepine and
nonbarbiturate drugs include meprobamate. Benzodiazepines, on the other hand, are more
effective and safer.
Some additional anxiolytics include buspirone, which has a minimal potential for misuse and
is safer than other anxiolytics in the long-term treatment of chronic conditions such as

generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, they do not cause drowsiness, making them safe
for patients to use while driving or using machinery.
These include chloral hydrate, antidepressant sedation, and sedating antihistamines such as
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and hydroxyzine, which are all hypnotic drugs (Atarax). In
comparison to benzodiazepines, they have a greater morning hangover impact and other
side effects that make them less popular. Many anti-anxiety and hypnotic medications may
be used for both purposes, making the difference between the two difficult. Antianxiety
benzodiazepines, particularly in the elderly, can induce sleep in many people with low
dosages of hypnotic benzodiazepines.
3. Antidepressant drugs
Affective disorders include depression, which is a prevalent mental illness (also called mood
disorders). Depression can be adequately treated with a variety of medications. Based on
side effects or safety, one is chosen over another. Tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and other heterocyclic
antidepressants are the primary groups of antidepressants (e.g., trazodone, bupropion). For
example, the SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine have no sedative effect or
anticholinergic action, related weight gain or heart toxicity. However, they can provoke
uneasiness in certain people.
Tricyclic antidepressants, which include tertiary amines and secondary amines, are the
oldest and most researched class. In addition to their sedative properties, tricyclics can
cause cardiac problems and have a range of anticholinergic side effects that some people,
particularly the elderly, have trouble tolerating. To put it another way: The inhibition of
parasympathetic nervous system impulses results in anticholinergic side effects as dry
mouth and diarrhea. Drug interactions with MAOIs can be hazardous. For tyramine, which
may cause hypertension and severe headaches, this is especially true Tyramine can be
contained in a wide variety of foods, thus patients who take it must follow a strict diet.
Mood swings are a hallmark of bipolar illness, which can range from exuberant exhilaration
and gregariousness to deep sadness. To get the best results from lithium, the most
commonly prescribed mood stabilizer, it is necessary to have frequent blood concentrations
monitored. Anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine and lamotrigine, may be recommended
if the patient has mania or depression while taking lithium.
4. Psychotherapy
Psychological counselling can be used to modify unwanted or possibly hazardous behavior
in a behavioral treatment, or behavioral modification. Most treatment focuses on modifying
unhealthy behaviors including smoking cessation, weight loss, alcohol control, or better
stress management.
5. Behavioral therapy

Changes in behavior can be achieved by behavioral therapy, also known as behavioral
modification, which employs psychological counselling. Changing bad behaviors, such as
quitting smoking, dieting to decrease weight, abstaining from alcohol, or managing stress
more efficiently, is the primary focus of treatment.
6. Group therapy
In group therapy, a skilled therapist—a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or member
of the clergy—works with a group of patients or family. Each member of the group benefits
from the group's interactions. Behavioral modification can be used in groups to improve
eating habits, resulting in weight loss. A variety of support groups are provided to help
those coping with cancer, alcoholism, abuse, death, and other life-altering events.
7. Family and systemic therapy
Following World War II, general systems theories began to appear in the biological and
social sciences. As a result, people began to see themselves as interconnected parts of
broader social systems. The focus of systemic treatment in psychotherapy is not on the
genesis of issues, but on the dynamics of connections that impact problems. Instead of
focusing just on the behavior or internal dynamics of individuals, the therapist's purpose is
to transform the dynamics of the relationships. For example, if a child is exhibiting tantrum-
like behavior, the family's developmental stage, communication quality, and the clarity and
flexibility of family roles would be taken into consideration.
One or more family members, such as teenage disciplinary issues, marital strife, drug
misuse, or relational difficulties in families that come from remarriage might benefit from
family counselling.

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