Tuesday, September 13, 2022



The goal of preventive medicine is to decrease or eliminate a patient's exposure to risk factors
in an effort to keep disease away. Vaccination of children is an example of primary prevention,
which aims to prevent disease from occurring in the first place. It is possible to prevent or cure
diseases through secondary prevention, which involves spotting early signs of illness before
they manifest into symptoms. Pap smears and mammograms are two examples of routine
screenings. The goal of tertiary prevention is to slow or halt the spread of an existing disease.
To put it plainly, primary prevention is a more cost-effective approach to illness management.
There are a number of leading causes of death around the world that include:
 cardiovascular disease,
 cancers,
 cerebrovascular illness,
 accidents, and
 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
 Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death because of the increased risk
of cardiovascular illness (e.g., heart attack), cancer, stroke, and chronic lung diseases
like emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Disease prevention suggestions and guidelines have been issued by a variety of organizations
around the world. According to a Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination, the US
Preventive Services Task Force was established to evaluate the efficiency of various screening
tests, vaccinations and preventive regiments based on a careful review of the scientific
literature in the US. Clinical Preventive Services Guide presents the panel's recommendations
for a wide range of disorders.
Preventing infectious diseases is best done through vaccinations. Diphtheria, tetanus, and
pertussis, also known as whooping cough (DTP), polio (OPV), measles, mumps, and rubella
(MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbCV), and hepatitis B, are all common childhood
vaccines that are routinely administered to children and babies (HBV). Infants and children
under the age of 2 should be vaccinated against influenza every year; adults over 65, those with
chronic cardiopulmonary disease, and those in long-term care facilities should also receive the
vaccine each year. Pneumococcal pneumonia can be prevented using a vaccine that contains 23
of the most frequent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A major infectious illness problem is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by
the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstacles in the way of a vaccine's development
remain high. Preventive strategies include abstaining from sexual contact, using condoms, and
avoiding sharing needles among intravenous drug users.
A heart attack can be prevented by reducing or eliminating risk factors such as a sedentary or
inactive lifestyle, being overweight or obese, smoking, high blood pressure, raised serum

cholesterol, and binge drinking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include a higher LDL (low
density lipoprotein) level, as well as a decrease in HDL (high density lipoprotein). Changing
one's diet to one that is lower in total cholesterol and higher in LDL can lower these levels,
while quitting smoking and getting more exercise can improve HDL levels. If none of those
options work, there are a number of cholesterol-lowering medications to choose from.
Hypertension, cigarette smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are all substantial risk factors for
stroke. Up to 20 percent of stroke victims experience a TIA, which includes symptoms such as
momentary visual loss in one eye, unilateral numbness, slurred speech, and localized weakness
in one arm or leg. TIAs usually occur before a stroke. Until a stroke occurs, attacks continue no
more than 24 hours and dissipate without causing permanent damage.
Avoiding cigarette smoke is the most effective way to reduce one's chance of developing
cancer. Nonsmokers are increasingly becoming aware of the dangers of exposure to continue
smoking, which causes 30 percent of all cancer deaths. Sunscreens and protective clothing can
be used as primary skin cancer prevention measures. As a secondary preventive measure for
cancers other than cancer of the uterus, uterus, and ovaries, secondary measures include
mammography (clinical breast examinations), breast self-examinations (BSEs), and Pap tests
(cervical cancer/ovarian cancer) and sigmoidoscopy (digital rectal examinations) for colorectal
Osteoporosis is more common in men and women over the age of 70, and it can lead to
fractures, low back discomfort, and a shortening of stature. A common symptom of oestrogen
insufficiency in postmenopausal women is osteoporosis. Estrogen replacement medication and
increased calcium intake are the most effective ways to maintain bone mass after menopause.
Tobacco and excessive alcohol use should be avoided, and physical activity should be increased
as a primary preventive measure.
A major cause of accidental fatality in the United States is alcohol misuse. Other factors include
not wearing seatbelts or motorcycle helmets, lack of sleep, and having guns in the house. Take
appropriate precautions and learn about the dangers of alcohol and guns to help limit the
number of accidental deaths caused by these two substances.

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