Tuesday, September 13, 2022



A general anesthetic is not necessary for many surgical procedures because to the use of local
anesthetics, which provide numbness and reduce pain. The patient won't have to spend the
night in the hospital unless something goes wrong. Anesthetizing particular peripheral nerves or
larger nerve trunks can also be accomplished with local anesthetics. There are a variety of uses
for nerve blocks that include pain management, but they are most commonly used to
anaesthetize the hands or feet during surgeries on the upper extremities. A local injection of
anesthetic into the subarachnoid or epidural region of the lumbar (lower back) section of the
spinal canal provides pain relief during childbirth or pelvic surgery while avoiding the
complications associated with a general anesthetic injection. On the skin, in the eyes' cornea
and conjunctiva, in the mucous membranes of your nose or mouth or throat or urethra are all
places where topical anesthesia can be applied.
A significant portion of local medication therapy is devoted to the treatment of dermatologic
problems, whether that means prescribing a medicine to promote hair growth or alleviate an
itchy, burning rash. Eczema, poison ivy allergies, and seborrheic dermatitis can all be treated
with a variety of corticosteroid formulations. UV rays can cause skin cancer, so it's important to
wear a sunblock to keep your skin safe from them. Cleansers, keratolytic agents to encourage
peeling, and topical antibiotics are all used to treat and prevent acne. Many different types of
wet dressings, gels, creams, and ointments are used by doctors to treat intensely inflammatory,
crusting wounds and to protect and hydrate dry, cracked skin. Topical medicines like silver
sulfadiazine help burns heal more quickly and with less scarring when used correctly. Nystatin
or an imidazole medication is effective in treating Candida infections of the mouth mucous
lining (i.e., thrush) or the vagina. Podophyllin, a crude resin, has been the conventional therapy
for genital warts. Interferon-, however, was developed in the late 20th century and is effective
in the majority of patients when injected directly into the lesion or subcutaneously below the
Mydriatics (drugs that dilate the pupil) like atropine are commonly used in ophthalmology to
aid in refraction and internal inspection of the eye, as well as to treat glaucoma and other eye


Chemical agents are used to treat sickness in order to kill off the underlying organism without
causing harm to the patient. Antibiotics used to treat bacteria, viruses, fungus, or parasites are
included in this definition. There are a number of uses for the term "chemotherapy," but the
most prevalent is to describe the treatment of cancer with chemicals. Because most
medications have a small therapeutic zone beyond which they destroy normal cells as well as
cancer cells, the goal of the therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving healthy cells intact.
When it comes to cancer treatment, anticancer medications are only moderately selective for
cancer cells, making it difficult for doctors to choose a drug that would destroy the most cancer

cells, while causing the fewest unpleasant and undesirable side effects. The goal of therapy is to
achieve a risk-benefit ratio that favors the treatment's morbidity above its possible advantages.
Many patients would refuse additional therapy if a treatment causes them to be unpleasant
and has only a little possibility of extending their lives. Patients may choose to continue with
severe treatment if they believe it will help them live longer.
Chemotherapy's effectiveness is dependent on the drug's concentration being at the tumor site
for an extended period of time to kill the tumor cells. In the early stages of the disease, when
the tumor is tiny and isolated, there is the best chance for a cure. Getting rid of a huge and
dispersed tumor becomes more difficult the larger and more widespread it is. Oral,
intravenous, intra-abdominal, intrathecal (into the spinal cords subarachnoid region), or intra-
arterial (into the tumor's artery) administration can all be options depending on the tumor's
The greatest limiting aspect in chemotherapy is the suppression of bone marrow function,
which reduces blood cell formation. A longer interval between chemotherapy treatments is
sometimes necessary to prevent full bone marrow suppression since chemotherapy works best
when administered at the highest safe dose. Platelet transfusions and white blood cell
transfusions are common supportive therapies used when bone marrow suppression occurs (to
prevent bleeding caused by decreased platelet production) (to control infection).
Chemotherapy used in conjunction with surgery or radiation to treat cancer is called adjuvant
chemotherapy. As a result of the frequent occurrence of distant micrometastases, this is an
absolute necessity. Cancer recurrence rates are reduced by adjuvant chemotherapy in various
tumors, particularly ovarian cancer, osteogenic sarcoma and colorectal cancer. Tamoxifen, an
antiestrogen medication, has shown promise in the treatment of some women with early-stage
breast cancer.

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