Tuesday, September 13, 2022



Most countries aim to structure their health services in such a way that people, families, and
communities get the most out of recent knowledge and technology available for health
promotion, maintenance, and repair. As part of this process, governments and other agencies
face a number of challenges, among them:
 A lack of reliable information can lead to misplaced planning; therefore, they must
gather as much information as possible on the scope and urgency of their demands.
 Second, the resources available to meet these needs must be assessed; developing
countries may require outside assistance to enhance their own resources.
 Following their assessments, governments need to set realistic goals and draw up plans
based on their findings.
 Final point: the programme must include an evaluation procedure; the absence of
precise data and reliable information can lead to confusion, waste and inefficiency.
The most noticeable, but not necessarily the most significant from a national point of view,
characteristic of health services is the curative function; that is, caring for individuals who are
already ill. There are many more types of health care, including those that focus on specific
populations (like children or pregnant women) and those that focus on specific requirements
(like nutrition or immunization), as well as those that focus on both individuals and
communities (like health education).
There are a variety of medical practices in the realm of healing. Most of them can be pictured
as standing on top of one another in a pyramidal structure, with each tier denoting a higher
level of specialization and technical sophistication while serving an ever-shrinking number of
patients. For diagnosis or treatment, only those patients who necessitate more attention
should be referred to the second or third tiers, where the cost per service increases. Patients'
first encounter with the healthcare system occurs at the primary care level, sometimes known
as "first contact care."
An essential aspect of any country's health care system is primary care, which makes up the
largest and most vital portion of it. Primary health care should be "based on practical,
scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally
accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a
cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their
development," according to the Alma-Ata declaration. Patients' first point of contact with a
healthcare provider in developed regions is typically a physician with medical training; in
developing countries, the first point of contact is more frequently handled by non-physicians.
At the primary level, the vast majority of patients can be successfully treated. Referral services
(secondary health care or consultants) are used for those who are unable to get primary health

care (primary health care) on their own. Secondary health care typically necessitates the use of
hospital technologies. However, the radiology and laboratory services offered by hospitals are
increasingly available to the family doctor directly, strengthening and expanding his service to
patients. Health care facilities such as teaching hospitals and units dedicated to the treatment
of specific populations, such as women, children, and people with mental illnesses, provide the
third level of care by utilizing specialized services. When it comes to health care in developing
countries, it's important to keep in mind that the cost of treatment varies dramatically between
levels, with the basic health-care level typically costing only a small fraction of the cost of
treatment at the third level.
All patients should have access to all levels of health care, which can be referred to as universal
health care. Medical care can be obtained in the private sector by those who are well-off,
whether they live in wealthy industrialized countries or in impoverished developing countries.
In most countries, the vast majority of people rely on government-provided health care, even if
they may contribute very little or nothing at all in poorer countries.

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